The glossary below is intended as an introductory guide to planning issues and other matters that might be relevant to the Barwick & Scholes Neighbourhood Plan. It is not a statement or interpretation of any law.
Affordable housing is not available on the open market. It is available as social rented, affordable rented or as shared ownership housing, and is managed by a Registered Social Landlord, who may be the local authority
Amenity Green Space
Amenity Green Space is open land, often landscaped, that makes a positive contribution to the appearance of an area or enhances the quality of the lives of people living or working within the local area. It often provides opportunities for activities such as recreation, and can serve other purposes such as reducing the noise from a busy road.
Blight is the depressing effect on an area or property that could be caused by potential development proposals, for example a proposed major new road.
Brownfield/previously developed land
Previously developed land, often called brownfield land, is land that was developed but is now vacant or derelict, or land currently in use where potential for re-development has been identified.
Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL)
The Community Infrastructure Levy is a charge which local authorities can choose to charge on new developments. Many local planning authorities are currently consulting on their scale of charges. The money can be used to support development by funding infrastructure that the council, local community and neighbourhoods want.
Conservations areas are areas of special architectural or historic interest, the character or appearance of which it is desirable to preserve or enhance
Core Strategy or Local Plan
A portfolio or folder of documents setting out the planning strategy for a local planning authority area. Since the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004 and until recently, this type of plan was known as a Local Development Framework. The Government now uses the simpler description ‘Local Plan’. The key difference between the pre- and post- 2004 systems is that new style local plans are really a folder of Development Plan Documents (DPDs) and Supplementary Planning Documents (SPDs), each addressing different issues.
The Core Strategy or Local Plan identifies where future development should take place to meet local needs for homes, businesses, shops and other services, as well as the infrastructure to support them. It also decides which areas should be protected from development because they are important to local people or have environmental or heritage qualities and should be conserved.
A Development Plan sets out the policies and proposals for the development, conservation and use of land and buildings in a particular local planning authority area. The Development Plan is the most important consideration for local planning authorities when they decide on a planning application. The Development Plan generally includes Development Plan Documents (DPDs) that are part of a local authority’s Local Plan.
Development Plan Document (DPD)
Development Plan Documents are plans and strategies written by a local planning authority that form part of the Local Plan. They form part of the formal development plan, so planning decisions must be taken in line with them unless material considerations indicate otherwise.
Because DPDs form part of the formal development plan there are strict rules about the level of public consultation that must happen when they are produced. They must also undergo a Sustainability Appraisal before adoption by a council.
Flood Risk Assessment
An assessment of the likelihood of flooding in a particular area so that development needs and flood mitigation measures can be carefully considered.
Government planning policy
National planning policies that local planning authorities should take into account when drawing up Development Plans and other documents, and making decisions on planning applications. In the past these policies have been included in Planning Policy Guidance notes (PPGs) and Planning Policy Statements (PPSs). The Government has recently replaced existing guidance with a new National Planning Policy Framework.
Green belt is a defined area of countryside around a town or city which is protected from ‘inappropriate’ forms of development – as defined in government planning policy on Green Belts. Green Belts aim to stop urban sprawl and the merging of settlements, preserve the character of historic towns and encourage development to take place within existing built-up areas. Quality or appearance of land is not a factor when deciding whether to designate an area as Green Belt.
Greenfield sites are usually land not previously used for development which was last used for agriculture or forestry. Such sites are usually found next to or outside existing built-up areas.
Highway authorities are responsible for producing the local transport plan and for managing existing or proposed new local roads in the area. In most places, the local highway authority is part of the county council, the metropolitan council or the unitary authority.
A common term for the 2000 or so independent, not-for-profit organisations that work with councils to offer housing to local people.
Basic services necessary for development to take place, for example, roads, electricity, sewerage, water, education and health facilities.
Land use planning
The planning system largely provides the framework for how land is used and developed. The system aims to make sure land is used in the public interest. It also makes sure that facilities such as roads, schools and sewers are built where they are needed.
A building of special architectural or historic interest. Listed buildings are graded I, II* or II with grade I being the highest. Listing includes the interior as well as the exterior of the building, and any buildings or permanent structures.
An umbrella term for the administrative body that governs local services such as education, housing and social services. Leeds is a unitary authority and as such it is governed by one authority responsible for most major services. Leeds is a two tier authority, with parish and town councils also in place.
Local Development Scheme
This sets out the documents that will make up the Local Plan, their subject matter, the area they will cover, and the timetable for their preparation and revision. Local planning authorities must prepare and maintain the Local Development Scheme, and publish up-to-date information on their progress.
This is a term that currently describes the Revised Unitary Development Plan (RUDP) which is used to determine planning applications. The RUDP will remain in place until it is replaced with the emerging Local Development Framework and is adopted by Leeds City Council following a public inquiry. It is expected to become the statutory document later this year or early in 2013.
Local planning authority
The local government body responsible for formulating policies, controlling development and deciding on planning applications. This could be a district council, unitary authority, metropolitan council or a National Park Authority.
Localism Act 2011
A major piece of new legislation which includes wide ranging changes to local government, housing and planning. Included in this new Act is the introduction of Neighbourhood Development Plans.
A factor which will be taken into account when reaching a decision on a planning application or appeal. Under section 38 of the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004, decisions on planning applications ‘must be made in accordance with the [development] plan unless other material considerations indicate otherwise’.
The courts ultimately decide on what constitutes a material consideration. However, a case law gives local planning authorities a great deal of leeway to decide what considerations are relevant, and how much weigh they should be given, each time they decide on a planning application. In practice, government planning policy is often the most important material consideration, other than the development plan. Government policy may override the development plan if it has been consulted on and published more recently.
Minerals and Waste Development Plan documents
Following the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004, these will progressively replace Minerals Local Plans and Waste Local Plans. They contain the authority’s policies on disposing of waste and on the working and apportionment of minerals.
Neighbourhood Development Orders
Neighbourhood Development Orders can be developed by communities and grant planning permission without the need to submit a planning application to the local planning authority. They have to go through a similar process to Neighbourhood Development Plans before being adopted.
Neighbourhood Development Plan
Neighbourhood Plans, or Neighbourhood Development Plans, were introduced by the Localism Act 2011. The term may also be used by some to refer the Neighbourhood Development Orders, which were also introduced by the Localism Act 2011 and are a second tool to enable neighbourhood planning. Communities will be able to prepare neighbourhood planning documents, outlining how they would like to see their area developing in the future. Details of how neighbourhood planning will work in practice are still being ironed-out. Please go to www.planning.org.uk for the most up to date information.
Space that is of public value, including public landscaped areas, playing fields, parks and play areas, and also including not just land, but also areas of water such as rivers, canals, lakes and reservoirs, which can offer opportunities for sport and recreation or can also act as a visual amenity or a haven for wildlife
Parish or town council
Parish and town councils are the tier of governance closest to the community. Around 30% of England’s population is governed by a parish council, predominantly in rural areas. Parish and town councils are elected bodies and have powers to raise taxes. Their responsibilities vary, but can include provision of parks and allotments, maintenance of village halls, litter control and maintenance of local landmarks.
Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004
The Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004 was a major piece of planning legislation, which amended much of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990. In particular, the 2004 Act made significant changes to the system of development plans and introduced ‘sustainable development’ as an objective of the planning system.
Formal approval which needs to be obtained from a local planning authority to allow a proposed development to proceed. Permission may be applied for in principle through outline planning applications, or in detail through full planning applications.
A proposals map is a spatial representation of the Local Plan. It should: identify areas that are protected; show areas at risk from flooding, allocated sites for particular land use and development proposals included in any adopted Development Plan Document (DPD); and set out the areas to which specific policies apply.
Public Open Space
Urban space, designated by a council, where public access may or may not be formally established, but which fulfils or can fulfil a recreational or non-recreational role (for example, amenity, ecological, educational, social or cultural usages).
Section 106 Agreement
A legal agreement under section 106 of the 1990 Town & Country Planning Act. Section 106 agreements are legal agreements between a planning authority and a developer, or undertakings offered unilaterally by a developer, that ensure that certain extra works related to a development are undertaken.
Site Allocation Development Plan Document
The Site Allocation DPD is part of the formal Development Plan which sets out allocated sites for housing, employment and other land uses, and identifies planning designations. These sites will eventually update, replace or introduce new development sites from those in the existing Unitary Development Plan (UDP).
To be considered sound, a Development Plan Document must be justified (founded on robust and credible evidence and be the most appropriate strategy) and effective (deliverable, flexible and able to be monitored). This is consistent with PPS12.
Spatial planning is also called ‘place shaping’ and has a wider focus than traditional land use planning. It is about identifying a vision for the future of a place which responds to local needs and circumstances, including community views, and is based on evidence. The vision is translated into priorities, policies and the identification of land for development. Spatial planning creates a framework for private investment and regeneration. By agreeing a delivery plan, it seeks to co-ordinate and deliver public sector parts of the plan with other agencies. Spatial planning should set a positive framework for action on climate change, and contribute to sustainable development.
Statement of Community Involvement
Statements of Community Involvement set out how the local planning authority will engage local communities in plan making: who they will engage and how. In particular, they list the community groups and other organisations which will be contacted about Local Plan stages, and the methods of consultation which will be used. Hard-to-reach groups are identified and methods of helping them get involved set out.
A statutory consultee is a body the local planning authority must consult if a planning application could affect their interests. For example, the Highways Agency must be consulted on applications that could affect a major road.
Strategic Housing Land Availability Assessment (SHLAA)
A SHLAA is a technical exercise to assess the amount and nature of land that could be made available for housing development. It is part of the evidence base that will inform the plan making process. A SHLAA must be prepared by local authorities with involvement of external interests, including house builders, in a “Partnership”. Government advice makes clear that areas of countryside and green belt should not be ruled out of the assessment.
The Leeds SHLAA Partnership is made up of representatives of the housing industry, the HCA, the Property Forum, CPRE, Renew, the community and council officers.
Strategic Housing Market Assessment (SHMA)
In 2006 Leeds CC commissioned consultants to assess the housing requirements in the Leeds area. The purpose of the Strategic Housing Market Assessment is to provide a better understanding of the housing markets in Leeds, the key drivers of housing demand and supply and the level of affordable housing required across the area. The Assessment provides robust evidence to inform the development of housing and planning policies.
The report was updated in 2010. It provides an assessment of how much new housing might be needed in Leeds for the period to 2026. It will be used to determine how much and what types of affordable housing are needed in Leeds and will influence a wide variety of council policies and strategies, including the Housing Strategy and the LDF Core Strategy.
Supplementary Planning Document
Supplementary Planning Documents (or SPDs) are prepared by district or unitary authorities, and form part of the Local Plan for an area. SPDs usually provide more detail on policies in Development Plan Documents (DPDs), for example on design or local affordable housing policy. They are not a part of the formal development plan, but are a material consideration when deciding on a planning application. Because they are not part of the development plan, SPDs do not have to be consulted on as extensively as DPDs, and do not undergo Sustainability Appraisal or independent examination.
Sustainability Appraisal assesses the economic, environmental and social impacts of a proposed policy or plan, to ensure that it would contribute to achieving sustainable development. Development Plan Documents (DPDs) have to undergo Sustainability Appraisal, but Supplementary Planning Documents (SPDs) do not.
Unitary authorities provide a one-tier or where parish or town councils exist, a two-tier structure of local authority in England. The responsibilities of unitary authorities include registering births, deaths and marriages, waste collection and disposal, social services and provision of social housing.